The human microbiome

12/07/2018 The human microbiome

What our smallest inhabitants, abdominal brain and health have to do with each other

They are invisible to the naked eye and yet they are everywhere. For a long time bacteria were mainly compared with diseases and were fought. This point of view is changing enormously at the moment. Recent research from all over the world shows how important these microorganisms are when looking through microscopes. All animals, plants and humans are colonised by microorganisms. The discovery of the human microbiome opens up completely new horizons. For example, this also includes medicine and the treatment of diseases.

Dr. Erika Rokita gives a review of the current findings of still relatively new studies that can already serve as a model for various areas of life


Human beings from the biosciences perspective

On the part of microbiology humans are a changing ecosystem or a biotope incredibly rich in species, on whose inner and outer surfaces thousands of different bacterial species and also viruses, fungi, flagellants, amoebae, mites, arachnids etc. cavort - mainly in peaceful agreement with us humans. A large part of this biological diversity has not yet been scientifically recorded.
The number of these microorganisms is gigantic. The ratio of body cells to microorganisms is 1:10. This means that about 90 % of all cells in the body are not of human origin. But humans can only survive together with these billions of microorganisms.
According to the latest findings, all microbes in humans (microbiota) form a community, even a common „super organ“, the so-called microbiome. This microbiome represents the totality of all microbial genes in the human organism. It is linked to our body cells and organ systems and as a kind of superordinate component of human life it has an incredibly large impact on our health.

The intestinal microbiome

Microorganisms colonise almost all areas of the body that are in contact with the outside world. These are about 400 m² of skin and mucous membranes. The majority of microorganisms, however, live in the lower small and large intestine. Our intestines are a huge ecosystem of about 100 billion microorganisms. These are 99 % bacteria with a total mass of 1.5 to 2 kilogrammes. This collective works with greater biochemical activity than our liver and that although 30–40 % of these transient bacteria leave the intestine daily. These „departures“ have to be constantly replaced by rapid reproduction - provided we eat a bacteria-friendly diet and do not permanently destroy diversity by taking in antibiotics frivolously.
Among the human intestinal bacteria, about 1,000 species from 5 strains (Bacterioidetes, Firmicicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia) have been found so far. With the help of new genetic detection methods, however, 36,000 species from 1,800 genera are already suspected. In any case, the colon (1012 per ml liquid) should be much more densely populated than the small intestine (109 per ml). In addition to bacteria, unicellular organisms (flagellates and ciliates) viruses and bacteriophages, fungi (especially yeasts), leeches, mites, and maggot worms, etc. can also be found in the human intestine.
Another interesting thing is that the microbiome is different in every human being. Only about 9 % of the intestinal inhabitants occur in all humans. The rest varies according to birth mode and lifestyle (diet, hobbies, environment, friends, stress, medication). This means that the composition of the intestinal microbiome changes again and again over the course of life and tends to decrease significantly in species diversity with age.

The intestine as the centre of well-being

Our intestines were underestimated as organs for a long time. They are in any case far more than just a digestive tube. In fact, they also build up a large part of the immune system and regulate countless metabolic processes. As the central energy source of our body, they influence all other organ and functional systems (e.g. skeleton, muscles, skin, psyche, fertility), immune system, heart function, memory, appetite, etc.).
In order to be able to cope with all the many tasks, the intestines or the body are absolutely dependent on the intestinal microbiota (formerly intestinal flora). But this microbiome as a bacterial organ is more than just the sum of the individual beings. It behaves like a multicellular organism by means of „quorum sensing“, in that it communicates with itself as well as with our body cells via signal messengers and thus enables all these great achievements and ultimately also decides on health and illness.



Mag. Dr. Erika Rokita

Mag. Dr. Erika Rokita

Herbal pedagogue, kinesiologist and Jin-Shin-Jyutsu practitioner

Effective microorganisms promote and support all LIFE!
Their use restarts the regulatory processes in the most diverse areas of life and thus contributes to the recovery of Mother Earth and all living beings. Their benefit is invaluable for us and nature!

How the stomach influences our behaviour and feeling - the stomach-brain axis
People nicely say „the belly thinks along“. In fact, there is a huge plexus of nerves in the stomach, the so-called enteric nervous system or „belly brain.“ This second human brain has five times more nerve cells than the spinal cord and at least as many as the brain itself.
Studies from the field of neurogastroenterology show that there is mutual communication between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain by means of messengers and impulse transmission via the vagus nerve. This is the so-called stomach-brain axis, whereby considerably more information is transported from the intestine to the brain than vice versa (90:10).
The composition of the intestinal microbiome, therefore, influences not only our physical health, but also our thinking, feeling, communicating, learning and behaviour. It is known today that psychological disorders can be caused by influences from the gastrointestinal tract and vice versa that drugs for brain metabolism can lead to intestinal complaints. It is currently being investigated how a good microbial supply can have an effect on this abdominal-brain axis and positively influence diseases such as Alzheimer‘s disease, MS, dementia, ALS or Parkinson‘s disease.

Change in intestinal microbiota promotes diseases
Flatulence, irritable bowel syndrome, metabolic disorders such as diabetes or obesity limit our well-being. Even with these symptoms and illnesses more and more studies show that changes in the microbiome such as dysbiosis or mal-colonisation of the intestine are decisive. A disturbance of the coexistence of bacteria and body cells also plays a major role.
Causes are frequent medication (especially antibiotics), but also our lifestyle (stress, too many negative emotions, wrong diet or too much alcohol, etc.). All this and much more often leads to Leakey Gut Syndrome, which - untreated for years - can ultimately lead to more serious diseases such as cancer. A change in the composition of the bacterial flora, for example, leads to inflammation of the intestinal mucosa and thus to the dissolution of tight junctions. The intestine becomes perforated, bacteria and toxins pass through the intestinal wall and enter the body via blood and lymph. These effects lead to an increased risk of intestine-associated diseases. Other systems in the body are also affected, such as the immune system (allergies, autoimmune diseases), the brain (depression, autism, learning and memory weakness, migraines, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders) or the skin (neurodermatitis, eczema, psoriasis).

Microbiome therapy
New research is producing completely new therapeutic approaches and treatment possibilities. Microbial therapy offers the opportunity to cure or at least alleviate diseases that were previously difficult to treat. It is a kind of „probiotic medicine“ that treats the causes and works holistically.
If there is a suspicion of an incorrect colonisation of the intestine, a detailed anamnesis, a physical examination and a laboratory examination of the intestinal flora using stool analysis are necessary. After the diagnosis, the appropriate therapies are carried out. Here EM technology with its various products can make a valuable contribution to the reorganisation of the disturbed environment. Of course, it can‘t replace a doctor!

How we keep our intestinal microbiome healthy
We have around two kilograms of microorganisms in our stomach. We ourselves can do a lot to make them feel at home and have a positive influence on our health.
We can support our intestinal bacteria by eating healthy and microbiome-friendly food: rich in fibre, balanced, but predominantly vegetal, lots of fermented products, as little sugar and white flour products as possible.
If necessary, it is good to take in specific pre- and probiotics, e.g. Manju and Multi Impuls.
It is also important to have a well-balanced, preferably nature-loving way of life. The intestinal bacteria don‘t like stress at all - therefore we should allow more time for relaxation and slowing down, exercise moderately and let go of negative thinking and behavioural patterns. Of course, all this does not take place overnight: healing is a process and takes time. But it‘s important to start somewhere.
This always requires self-reflection. We should orientate our lifestyle more towards the cycles of nature, change bad habits and avoid toxic substances.
In doing so, we act and live in a self-responsible and respectful manner towards life, the environment and bacteria.
„Our microorganisms are not everything, but without them, all would be nothing!“
This is how Jörg Blech, a German journalist, describes it in his book „Das Leben auf dem Menschen“. How right he is! Without them, there would be no life and no survival.

Read more about this topic:

  • Bernhard Kegel: Herrscher der Welt - wie Mikroben unser Leben bestimmen. DuMont, Köln 2015, ISBN 978-3-8321-9773-5
  • Sebastian Jutzi: Der bewohnte Mensch - Darm, Haut, Psyche; besser leben mit Mikroben. Heyne, München 2014, ISBN 978-3-453-60307-3
  • Anne Katharina Zschocke: Darmbakterien als Schlüssel zur Gesundheit - Neueste Erkenntnisse aus der Mikrobiomforschung. Knaur Verlag 2014, ISBN 978-3-426-65753-9


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